EV charging stations

Discussion in 'General' started by imjohn-smith, Mar 18, 2024.

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  1. imjohn-smith

    imjohn-smith New Member

    What are the different types of EV charging stations available, and how do they differ in terms of charging speed and compatibility with various electric vehicles?
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  3. Hi @imjohn-smith and welcome. That is a really wide topic and much has been written on the subject. The specifics depends on the vehicle, the country, and sometimes the part of the country one is driving in. If you have more specific questions someone here will answer them. There are lots of articles here on Inside EV's on the subject.

    Initially I will give a general answer. There are two basic types of charging stations based on electricity supply.

    DCFC - Direct Current Fast Charging (DCFC) is type of charging station that operates on direct current. DCFC can deliver the highest charging speeds. Where compatibility issues may occur is when the vehicle has a different charging port compared to the charging station available plug(s). Different countries/continents have different plug standards. In the US there are three basic DCFC plugs. Tesla, until recently, has had a proprietary plug on their vehicles and charging equipment. That plug more recently has been renamed the North American Charging Standard (NACS) and recently has been the basis for the adoption of the J3400 standard and a movement towards that as a single plug standard. Most of all other EV's for sale in the US and equipped for DCFC have a port called the Combined Charging System (CCS1), except currently the Nissan Leaf. The Leaf has a separate plug referred to as CHAdeMo. Another potential (though usually temporary) incompatibility is when the vehicle software and charging station software do not speak the same 'language' or have different interpretations of the standard. Sometimes it is a brief hiccup in charging that requires restarting the session and sometimes the vehicle will not charge. DCFC delivers the fastest charging speeds and that maximum speed varies by the capabilities of the equipment at a charging station location, the voltage of the vehicle (300+ volts or more which varies based on the high-voltage battery state of charge), temperatures, and the supply of electricity to the location. Because of the high power requirements and more expenmsiove equipment, DCFC is typically used either in public charging or a commercial fleet location.

    Level 1 or 2 - Operates on alternating current. Level 2 is alternating current typically in the 208-277 volts range and is used for home appliances like a hot water heater, clothes dryer, or a range. The charging station operates with similar voltage and typically delivers the current at a fairly constant voltage. Level 2 recharging typically takes a few hours to overnight depending on the capacity and initial state of charge of the high-voltage battery. Level 1 in the US is based on 110/120 alternating current and many vehicles either are sold with or one can buy charging equipment to charge the vehicle at home, and is the slowest form of recharging, taking overnight or longer. Again there are two types of plugs which can charge at either Level 1 or Level 2. Tesla and the J1772 plug found on other vehicles.
  4. bwilson4web

    bwilson4web Well-Known Member Subscriber

    A simple guide:
    • L1 (120 VAC, 12-15 A) - usually a portable charger provided with the EV. The better ones are dual-voltage.
    • L2 (240 VAC, 30-40 A) - either a dual voltage portable, ~$250, or a wall mounted unit, ~$350. These are nearly universal with low end being a NEMA 14-50 plug found in an RV park.
    • Fast DC (400 VDC, 80-500 A) - typically found off of major highways, nearly universally requires an App, RFID, or credit card to enable charging and billing. A few EVs can take 800 VDC but they are rare.
    Most navigation systems can to a greater or lessor extent map these stations. For me, the gold standard is the free, Google maintained:

    Plugshare provides EV comments from the most recent charges so you can avoid the 'dodgy' ones. It also shares local restrictions (i.e., hotel guest only) and clues for obscure locations (behind the bush.)

    Like EVs, chargers and networks are under development and changing. So my 2019 Tesla Model 3 Std Rng Plus could not charge at a CCS-1 station. About five months ago, I installed a conversion kit that allows using both CCS-1 and SuperCharger stations. This has cut out a lot of 'dog legs' and gaps in the charging networks.

    Bob Wilson
  5. imjohn-smith

    imjohn-smith New Member

    @bwilson4web @andyG59, Thank you to both of you for your response, now i want to tell you that i am using Ev Charger From Xova Charging.
    Xova charging EV chargers typically come in three main types: Level 1, Level 2, and DC fast charging stations. Level 1 chargers use a standard household outlet and provide the slowest charging speeds, suitable for overnight charging. Level 2 chargers offer faster charging rates and require a 240-volt outlet, commonly found in homes and public charging stations. DC fast chargers provide the quickest charging speeds and are compatible with most electric vehicles, making them ideal for long-distance travel. Xova charging EV chargers cater to these different needs, ensuring efficient and reliable charging for various electric vehicle models.
  6. bwilson4web

    bwilson4web Well-Known Member Subscriber

    Do you offer a dual voltage L1 and L2 charger?

    Is the current limit adjustable for L1 and/or L2 chargers?

    There are many 208-240 VAC plugs, what adapters do you offer?

    Do they present the kWh and duration when disconnected from the car?

    Is there a cell network, Bluetooth, or WiFi interface to the charger(s)?

    Do they retain previous charge sessions for later download?

    Bob Wilson
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  8. imjohn-smith

    imjohn-smith New Member

    Hello, Bob I hope all is well with you!

    At Xova Charging, I am not the owner. I had a positive experience using their chargers and I am a just user. I contacted their contact support with your inquiries because I was also curious about the answers to them. I received the following from them.

    Ans 1: Yes our L2 chargers work on 208 or 240 V

    Ans 2:
    Yes we can adjust the amperage from 32amp up to 80amp

    NEMA 14-50 typically


    Ethernet, Wi-Fi, and Cellular

    The OCPP software typically will retain charging data for their records

    They also sent me the link to their EV Chargers to explore, I simply hoping that you receive the answers you need.
    Best Regards,
    bwilson4web likes this.

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